There are Prophets and there is Moses: The Qualifications, Screening and Content of Prophets and the 4 Distinctions between Moses and all other Prophets

Belief in the idea that God communicates to man is an essential principle of our religion. In fact, various elements of prophecy comprise four of the thirteen principles of the Jewish faith that Maimonides enumerates as necessary for inclusion in the religion. What does prophecy mean? How does one become a prophet? How are claims of prophecy vetted? What was the leadership role of prophets throughout the ages? What was unique about the prophecy of Moses?